Outlook for the Chief Growth Officer Role

What You Need to Know Right Now to Level Up as a CGO

Businessman writing growth over a rising bar graph

The big headline about the Chief Growth Director (CGO) role over the past several years is that it is replacing the Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) in many companies. The most prominent example cited is the replacement of Coca Cola’s retiring CMO with a CGO in 2017. In a particularly dire prediction, Forrester, in a report titled Predictions 2020, stated that for CMOs, “the stage [is] set for a desperate fight for survival.” Digital transformation and rapid change are blamed for the shift in thinking on CMOs.

LinkedIn Editor George Anders reports hiring of chief growth officers in the United States has climbed at a compound growth rate of 42 percent a year since 2015, and CGO is gaining popularity faster than any other C-Suite title. Variations on the title include SVP of Growth, VP Acquisition Marketing, and VP of Performance Marketing.

Even as the CMO role is under attack, elements of it are part of the CGO role, which blogger Paul Sparrow calls “Chief Marketer on steroids.” Consultant Susan Avarde calls the role “Chief Marketing and Chief Brand Officer rolled into one.” In a study of the growth of the CGO role, Singular characterizes the difference in the roles this way: “Where a CMO leads all marketing initiatives for a company, a chief growth officer catalyzes growth. A CGO leads growth with an emphasis on performance marketing, and a heavy reliance on marketing technology.” The growth of the role seems related to a redefinition of marketing. “Business leaders are starting to see marketing as a catalyst for creating sustainable growth fueled by a passionate focus on the end customer,” writes Allen Yesilevich for Forbes.

The Singular report calls CGOs “growth catalysts;” they are charged with growing new markets, existing markets, and foreign markets. The hiring of CGOs, the report states, appeals to “companies that want to grow fast, need a leader to spearhead that growth, and are willing to bridge different departments, roles, and groups in the singular pursuit of growth.”

Chief Growth Officers oversee acceleration of business growth and build cross-functional teams that may include R&D, customer service, analytics, sales, finance, and more. They tend to offer a longer-term vision than CMOs.

Key Competencies for the CGO Role

Surprisingly, the CGO role may not require a marketing background. Though not all experts agree, so says Sanjay Khosla of the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University. “Companies look for people with commercial experience, people who can actually run a business,” he says. Most of the current wave of CGOs have been hired internally to enable them to serve “as a trusted advisor and challenger to the current CEO,” notes blogger Shannon Vize. A master’s degree and 10 years of business experience are suggested for the role.

When preparing career-marketing communications to send to employers, those aspiring to the CGO role should emphasize these qualities:

  • Growth mindset
  • Customer focus
  • Analytics mastery
  • Data-driven
  • Awareness of market trends
  • Marketing-technology knowledge
  • Cross-functional team-building
  • Long-term vision
  • Brand-building
  • Understanding of how to create profitability by blending marketing, sales, product, and finance functions.

Level-Up Tips

Here are a few suggestions for those seeking to break into the CGO role, expand their horizons in an existing CGO role, or even rise beyond the CGO role:

  • Look to fill a gap in the CEO’s expertise. “CGOs can be especially valuable to a business when the CEO lacks a background in customer experience, communication, and engagement,” asserts the blog Marketpro. “ (One cynical look at the CGO role suggests the entire function of the CGO role is to make the CEO look good and do his or her dirty work.
  • Know your how’s, why’s, when’s, and outcomes. The CGO needs to know the what, why, and how of his or her growth plan, as well as how and it will be executed, and what the expected outcomes are. That’s the advice of Sparrow, who cites such planning as the way to set the pace for accelerating the business.
  • Already possess a “growth title,” such as chief marketing officer, head of acquisition, head of customer acquisition, head of business development, or head of new business. These titles will succeed best in a CGO role, according to Aldrebaran Recruiting, while those with sales or product titles probably will not. A report by Russell Reynolds on the CGO role in consumer packaged goods adds that “a pure functional specialist is unlikely to succeed in the role.
  • CGO may open a path to CEO. “In many cases, the role is considered a conscious attempt at CEO succession planning,” the Russell Reynolds report notes.
  • Make some waves. “This role often looks to challenge how things are typically done in the business, alter corporate culture, and drive innovation for best growth-based results,” points out the Mondo staffing blog.


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Outlook for the Chief Strategy Officer Role

What You Need to Know Right Now to Level Up as a CSO

business plan flow chart on chalkboard

Virtually every post in the year-long series on this blog profiling C-Suite roles has talked about the need for all C-Suite roles to integrate strategy into their job functions. In turn, the strategy mandate has resulted from rapid change in the business world. “Confronted with trends in digitalization, globalization, ever more stringent government regulations, and increasingly complex supply chains and organizational structures, executive leaders are being pressured to continuously develop and implement more robust strategy in order to respond, adapt and get ahead,” writes John Nimesheim.

This growing emphasis on strategy is a big reason for the emergence, especially in the last decade or so, of the Chief Strategy Officer (CSO, not to be confused with Chief Sustainability Officer or Chief Security Officer). The top strategy officer may also have a title such as chief strategist, VP of corporate strategy, or VP strategic development. Research back in 2007 by Harvard Business Review identified more than 90 titles for the top strategy executive.

Traditionally, strategy has been the purview of the CEO (sometimes COO or CFO) but especially in larger companies, strategy has become too big for the CEO alone to handle. Some experts have suggested CEOs are better at developing strategy than executing it, thus leaving execution to the CSO.

CSOs oversee long- and short-term strategic initiatives and goals. They helm strategy planning and development, resource allocation, and strategy execution. They identify growth opportunities and monitor trends. (Get a feel for a day in the life of a CSO). A 2013 report from Boston Consulting Group points out that CSO responsibilities vary by industry. The report points to an emphasis on strategic planning and cross-business-unit strategy in consumer-goods companies, but in industrial-goods companies, a greater priority on increasing shareholder value through portfolio management, M&A, and identifying growth opportunities. Writer Caitlin Stanway-Williams observes that the CSO job description is “in a constant state of flux.”

Perhaps no phenomenon illustrates the variations and flux in the CSO role better than the fact that no fewer than four articles/reports have characterized the role in terms of diverse CSO personas:

CSO chart

*Deloitte, EY, Harvard Business Review, Marakon Consulting

In yet another nod to the role’s variability, Stanway-Williams describes the role as ranging “from the sole curator of the company’s direction with an ear direct to the CEO, the one who may lead the business acquisitions and define the vision – to simply a PowerPoint expert who puts other people’s thoughts and ideas into digestible leadership materials.”

CSOs face daunting challenges. A PWC 2018 Chief Strategy Officer Benchmarking Study of 187 CSOs across the globe, revealed that only 25 percent of respondents felt they were “very successful” at creating value for their company. PWC’s research further found that 65 percent of respondents across industries don’t think their company has a winning strategy. The report identifies unclear definition of the CSO role and confusing priorities, as well as the “breadth and ambiguity” of the CSO role, for these dismal numbers. It also notes that only 28 percent of CSOs fully agreed that they have a seat at the table at the same level as that of other senior executives. Almost half don’t meet more than twice a month with their CEO to discuss strategy.

Key Competencies for the CSO Role

It’s possible to land a CSO role with only a bachelor’s degree (especially in general business, marketing, sports marketing, or media), although an MBA or other advanced degree can certainly bolster your credentials, as will certification. The Association for Strategic Planning (ASP) offers the Strategic Planning Professional (SPP) and Strategic Management Professional (SMP) certifications.

When preparing career-marketing communications to send to employers, those aspiring to the CSO role should emphasize these qualities:

  • Strategic planning
  • Strategic execution
  • Market and competitor analysis skills
  • Risk-management skills
  • Portfolio analysis
  • Initiative prioritization
  • Understanding of capital allocation
  • Innovation skills
  • Cultural and social awareness
  • Self-control
  • Data-driven
  • Storytelling skills

Level-Up Tips

Here are a few suggestions for those seeking to break into the CSO role, expand their horizons in an existing CSO role, or even rise beyond the CSO role:

  • Clarify expectations. We’ve already seen how different the CSO role can be from organization to organization and, via the PWC report, that poor CSO role definition and unclear priorities can demoralize CSOs. Thus, it’s critical to have a crystal-clear understanding of what is expected of you in the role, and especially grasp the CEO’s expectations.
  • Leverage the first few months on the job. Deloitte’s Making of a Successful Chief Strategy Officer advises engaging in one-on-one discussions about the company’s current strategy and defining near-term activities and priorities.
  • Be the yin to the CEO’s yang. Given that strategy is also integral to the CEO’s role, the CSO’s skills and personality should complement the CEO’s. “The CSO should feel comfortable enough to challenge the CEO’s thinking,” asserts EY’s The DNA of the Chief Strategy Officer, “but should otherwise be in lockstep with each other as it relates to strategy development and execution.” Author Nirmalya Kumar suggests CSOs should ask themselves, “How do you add value to the organization and the CEO without taking away the limelight from the CEO?” and consider “how to be adequately deferential to the CEO, yet … push the CEO’s thinking on strategy.”
  • Be a strategy unicorn. So advises the Web site of the software company AchieveIt: “Strategy unicorns “have a deep background in leadership and strategic planning (many times stemming from a military background), and are adept at both situational planning and resource allocation. They are not only well versed in the corporate strategy, but have deep connections within every business unit of a company.”

CSO Trends to Watch

  • Use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) will result in better forecasts regarding strategic options. AI impacts every C-Suite role, and for CSOs, it can yield state-of-the-art planning, forecasting, and trend-analysis capabilities. AI training can be a big advantage for ambitious CSOs.
  • Accelerated pace of change requires fast action. The blog Outthinker cautions CSOs not to “wait a year to assess whether the shift you are seeing in your marketplace represents an early signal or whether it represents an inflection point that could change the industry.”
  • Employee innovation gets activated. “Forward-looking strategy officers are seeking, and finding, new ways to activate innovation broadly throughout their organizations,” Outthinker notes, resulting in a workforce that “will evolve rapidly with creativity, innovativeness, lateral thinking, and problem-solving becoming more critical workforce capabilities.”
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Outlook for the Chief Risk Officer Role

What You Need to Know Right Now to Level Up as a CRO

risk management

As management of risk – especially digital risk – has grown increasingly important to companies, the Chief Risk Officer (CRO) role has also grown in significance. Within the framework of what has come to be known as Enterprise-Wide Risk Management (ERM), “the Chief Risk Officer is a C-suite executive who is tasked with the identification, analysis, and mitigation of events that could threaten a company,” writes Juliana De Groot, who notes that threats can be internal or external. The CRO may also deal with compliance in areas such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. In some companies, the CRO role is called Chief Risk Management Officer and occasionally Chief Actuarial Officer. Some organizations have a risk committee to guide their risk exposure.

Most CROs report to the CEO. The CRO takes the temperature of the organization to gauge how much risk the firm can tolerate – its risk “appetite.” Risk & Compliance magazine notes, “in building an enterprise risk-management framework, the CRO, along with the board and senior management, must develop a risk culture that is communicated and understood throughout the organization.” The CRO protects the company’s investment in risk management by implementing risk-management controls across departments to prevent fraud, penalties, security breaches, lawsuits, and investment losses.

Key Competencies for the CRO Role

While a bachelor’s degree (typically in finance, economics, business administration, statistics, or management) is usually adequate for a job as CRO, a master’s in finance or an MBA can speed the prospective CRO’s advancement, as does training in crisis management, risk assessment, internal auditing, fraud prevention, corporate compliance, and IT security. You may want to pursue a Certification in Risk Management Assurance (CRMA). CROs typically have 10-20 years of experience climbing the corporate ladder in roles such as risk manager, financial manager, compliance officer, or internal audit director.

As with most C-Suite roles, communication skills are in high demand for CROs. “In reviewing the details of some of our most recent Chief Actuary searches,” relates Kieran Welsh-Phillips of actuarial-recruiting firm DW Simpson, “the most commonly sought-after trait, aside from a well-rounded actuarial skillset, is communication savvy.” In fact, Robert Kugel of Ventana Research likens risk communication to learning another language: “A CRO should be able to translate risk jargon into words and concepts that are relevant to specific parts of the business.”

When preparing career-marketing communications to send to employers, those aspiring to the CRO role should emphasize these qualities:

  • Knowledge of the business, including statistical, actuarial, financial, and economic modelling skills.
  • Strategic insight.
  • Ethical leadership skills.
  • Ability to measure risk vs. reward.
  • Analytical and math skills.
  • Understanding of organizational goals and objectives.
  • A solid grasp of credit and financial market cycles.
  • Both empathy and objectivity.
  • Influence and persuasion.
  • Common sense and judgment.
  • Consistency and accountability.
  • Understanding of performance management.

Level-Up Tips

Here are a few suggestions for those seeking to break into the CRO role, expand their horizons in an existing CRO role, or even rise beyond the CRO role:

  • Grab the opportunity to obtain real-world business experience in risk management. Early on, these opportunities may come in the form of internships and summer jobs.
  • Know how to optimize risk within the context of the corporate strategy. So advises Kugel, who adds, “optimizing risk is a necessary condition for optimizing return on equity and long-term success.” As Chris Ruggeri, Keri Calagna, Chris Vanuga, Cynthia Vitters, and Michael Fay point out, “most executive teams grasp the importance of risk management in the attainment of corporate goals and the value of more strategic approaches—and CROs are pursuing more strategic roles in the organization.”
  • Gain international experience. T. Scott Mackenzie, whom Welsh-Phillips interviewed in an article on CRO career paths, noted of his international endeavors, “international political events can have a big impact on the operations of international companies, but may also have a contagion effect on the operations of a regional U.S. company. Being able to see and understand these potential dominos is an important attribute for the CRO.”
  • Seek senior-executive sponsorship. “Senior executive sponsorship is also a critical need if the chief risk officer is to be a strategic player,” Kugel cautions.

CRO Trends to Watch

  • Technological advances require a vigilant eye. “Any future CRO,” cautions Austin Clark on the Finance Director blog, “will need to have a keen eye on the digital risks that impact [their] institutions without respite and are only set to worsen.” On the flip side, technology can be deployed in risk modeling, tracking, and sensing to reduce risk, but Ruggeri, Calagna, Vanuga, Vitters, and Fay note that organizations are underutilizing these tools.
  • By 2025 Chief Risk Officers and their teams will need to have become more proactive in their risk management strategies and capabilities. That’s the caveat of Michelle Perry’s portion of a White Paper entitled “Harnessing Risk Management,” which goes on to say, “the CRO will also have to be evolved into a more rounded, influential, business minded individual in order to persuade the executive board when to act to defend itself and when to take advantage of opportunities. Only that way will the CRO and its team ensure their worth and show how they have matured to benefit the broader business and keep their place at the top table.”
  • CROs will need to entirely focus on spotting threats and assessing if and how those threats affect the organizations. Perry points out that CROs will need to assess whether the business has the capabilities to mitigate those threats. “It’s vital for the CRO to be able to look across the whole business – not just strategically, but tactically and operationally, too,” she says.

Check out an interesting podcast series for CROs, including podcasts on “a year in the life of a CRO.”

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Outlook for the Chief Commercial Officer Role

What You Need to Know Right Now to Level Up as a CCO

Chief Commercial Officer (CCO), like several C-Suite roles, overlaps with other roles, such as Chief Marketing Officer, Chief Sales Officer, and even customer-focused roles such as Chief Customer Officer, and Chief Experience Officer. The CCO role, sometimes known as Chief Commercialization Officer, is typically broader than that of a CMO, incorporating not only marketing but also sales, innovation, and customer service. “Over the last decade, the introduction of the Chief Commercial Officer (CCO) for companies both small and large has resulted from the need to help businesses harness the entire commercial power of the organization,” notes Marc Cottle with McMann & Ransford. A need emerged, Cottle says, for a “C-level executive with sales, marketing, product management and strategy depth.” The CCO role brings sales and marketing together under a single point of leadership.

“The CCO is the new, holistic internal strategist and external spokesperson that CEOs lean on for how the company should interface with its customers to drive growth,” observes Andrew Hazelton, managing director at AETHOS Consulting Group. The CCO may deal with product development, customer service, and marketing.

Key Competencies for the CCO Role

An excellent, comprehensive publication on the CCO role from Ernst & Young, The CCO perspective, offers a specific profile of a typical CCO:

The average CCO is a 46-year-old man [just 12 percent of CCOs are women] who has been in the position for only a short period, given the role is relatively new. The commercial chief is more academically qualified than the average CSO or CMO, with more than half having a master’s degree. They hold senior roles, with 80 percent on the executive board. The CCO is interested in the big picture, getting their greatest satisfaction from strategic management and being involved in the direction of the company. They keep up with external trends: 71 percent believe they add value by ‘exploiting in-depth knowledge of the market and competition.’ The commercial chief is ambitious: one in three thinks they will be CEO within five years.

When preparing career-marketing communications to send to employers, those aspiring to the CCO role should emphasize these qualities:

  • Well-versed in all facets of the commercial side of the business
  • Execution skills
  • Process orientation and service orientation
  • People skills
  • Team-building
  • Leadership
  • Sensitivity to diversity
  • Creativity
  • Problem-solving
  • Business acumen
  • Drive to develop and execute strategic initiatives

Level-Up Tips

Here are a few suggestions for those seeking to break into the CCO role, expand their horizons in an existing CCO role, or even rise beyond the CCO role:

  • Choose marketing-driven companies that offer learning opportunities. The CCO role recognizes the increasing role of marketing, so those interested in the role should come up in the ranks of firms that value marketing. Brand management is often an effective starting point. Lysa Hardy, Chief Commercial Officer, Holland & Barrett, notes that company migration to chief commercial officer is an official acknowledgement of marketing’s role; Hardy calls the CCO role a “turbocharged version” of the old sales-and-marketing directors model. “It’s where are we going, not just what we are selling today,” Hardy says.
  • Consider graduate school. As we saw from the Ernst & Young report, more than half of CCOs have master’s degrees.
  • Learn to harness technology and data to understand and satisfy the customer. The Ernst & Young report portends signs that CCOs lag in this area. Integrating the digital experience into your commercial practices is an important aspect of this role.
  • Consider the CEO role (and go for the CCO role if you want the CEO role). Ernst & Young’s The CCO perspective notes that the C-suite thinks the CCO is significantly more likely to become CEO within five years than either the sales or marketing chief. Hazelton predicts a shift in leaders coming from functional verticals that are closer to consumers (rather than the traditional finance side).
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Outlook for the Chief Diversity Officer Role

What You Need to Know Right Now to Level Up as a CDO

The good news for those looking to enter or level up in the Chief Diversity Officer (CDO) role is that it is a growing role. The not-as-good news is concern that having the role in place is not enough for organizations to effectively rise to the challenge of diversity and inclusion. “Hiring a chief diversity officer is not a silver bullet for a diversity problem,” writes Alison DeNisco Rayome on TechRepublic,” and organizations require cultural changes over time to increase inclusivity. In addition, many CDOs say they lack the support, resources, data, and clout to make a real difference.

A 2018 report by Russell Reynolds, “A Leader’s Guide: Finding and Keeping Your Next Chief Diversity Officer, notes that 47 percent of companies on the S&P 500 index currently have a chief diversity officer or equivalent. Driving the role’s growth, in part, is the research-backed recognition that a diverse workforce boosts a company’s revenue. A 2018 McKinsey study, using 2017 data, found that companies in the top quartile for ethnic and cultural diversity on their executive teams were 35 percent more likely to experience above-average profitability than companies in the fourth quartile.

The CDO role has also garnered significant attention on college campuses. George Leef points out that over the last several decades “the number of college administrators has grown far more than the numbers of students and faculty,” and the highest growth has been in diversity officials. “Chief diversity officers attempt to institutionalize diversity in higher education,” says Rhonda Brown, CDO at Occidental College.

The majority of CDOs come from a background in diversity and inclusion or human resources, while some come from other functional areas, such as sales and marketing, management consulting, and the legal field. “The key is that they have demonstrated interest in doing work that helps the organization toward a diverse and inclusive culture,” says H. Wes Pratt, a CDO profiled by Taryn Oesch.

For bite-sized looks at what CDOs at nine well-known companies have been up to, see Selena Templeton’s article in ITSP magazine.


Key Competencies for the CDO Role

The minimum education requirement for a CDO is typically a master’s degree. A doctorate is sometimes required, especially for university CDOs. Prospective CDOs usually have 5-10 years of experience, although the Russell Reynolds report noted that 63 percent of CDOs in its study have been appointed or promoted to their roles in the past three years.

Persuasive communication skills are critical for CDOs, as they will likely need to attain buy-in for their initiatives. Some of these additional CDO competencies and characteristics were suggested by the report “Creating a Competency Model for Diversity and Inclusion Practitioners,” by Indra Lahiri for The Conference Board:

  • Change management
  • D&I [diversity and inclusion, also sometimes expressed as “DEI,” for diversity, equity, and inclusion] expertise and global perspective
  • Business acumen
  • Strategic mindset
  • Integrity
  • Visionary, resilient leadership
  • Conflict management
  • Political savvy
  • Collaboration
  • Influence without authority
  • Innovative problem solving
  • Ability to navigate corporate culture
  • Ability to showcase ROI for diversity and inclusion initiatives
  • HR competencies (total rewards, talent management, organizational development, work and life balance, training, compliance, and employee relations)

Level-Up Tips

Chief Human Resources Officer is often the next step for CDOs; in higher education, the CDO role can pave a path to college president. Here are a few suggestions for those seeking to break into the CDO role, expand their horizons in an existing CDO role, or even rise beyond the CDO role:

  • Crusade to prioritize diversity and inclusion. As noted, many CDOs feel stymied by the C-Suite’s failure to prioritize diversity and inclusion. “Many D&I initiatives are disconnected from business priorities, and CDOs often lack the necessary resources or organizational support to make lasting changes,” notes the Russell Reynolds report. The report also found that CDOs can significantly affect D&I success, particularly when they have the authority and skills to set D&I strategy. When the CDO is vaguely defined, it’s easy for the executive team to not take it seriously. Thus, a new CDO should deploy diplomatic, political, and persuasive skills to push for a well-defined role and high priority for diversity and inclusion. Understanding the business and the social environment can help in cultivating influence.
  • Build working relationships with top leaders at the organization. Developing a deep understanding of the business and the types of challenges that you face will also help you build credibility and trusting relationships with other leaders. “Ensuring that CDOs have the ability to influence and enact change is crucial,” states the 2017 report, “The Critical First Year: What New Chief Diversity Officers Need to Succeed,” by Charlene Aguilar and Jennifer Bauer. That ability won’t come solely from building relationships, but those connections comprise a good start. The organization must understand that the CDO isn’t a superhero or knight in shining armor; establishing a diverse and inclusive culture is a team effort. Nicole Roach writes about having gone on a listening tour when she first began her position as associate vice president for diversity and inclusion of Webster University.
  • Be a change agent. Simply managing change will not be enough to get the job done for most CDOs. “In the most successful cases,”” the Russell Reynolds report states, “the CDO is galvanizing the leadership team around a shared change mandate that leads to defined outcomes.”
  • Make the most of your first year on the job. Strategize early successes – and be clear about how your organization is measuring success.

CDO Trends to Watch

  • The definition of diversity broadens. Increasingly, the scope of diversity is spreading beyond gender and ethnicity and into areas such as age and sexual preference. Kayla Kozan observes that aging populations and greater numbers of workers people delaying retirement, age discrimination is gaining particular attention.
  • Executive leadership itself is becoming more diverse. Noting that companies like Netflix, M&T Bank and Uber all increased diverse leadership within their organizations, Janice Gassam stated in Forbes, “more diverse leadership representation is a good indication that companies are beginning to understand the value of diversity and inclusion in the workplace.”
  • Companies increasingly use data to measure the effectiveness of diversity initiatives. Among the resources many CDOs say they are deprived of is data. “One of the big bottlenecks for increasing workplace diversity has been relying on practices that sound good on the surface but haven’t proven to be very effective,” Kozan asserts. To reverse these practices, companies will equip CDOs with the data they need.
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Outlook for the Chief Product Officer Role

What You Need to Know Right Now to Level Up as a CPO

The relatively new Chief Product Officer (CPO) role has been entering the C-Suite in significant numbers and is often the result of company growth. Google, CNN, Uber, and Forbes are among well-known companies with CPOs (not to be confused with another CPO, Chief Procurement Officer). The role is closely related to, and sometimes overlaps with, Chief Technology Officer and Chief Marketing Officer. The role functions at the intersection of tech, user requirements, and business requirements, says Tess Bennett, who profiled several CPOs in 2017 and who notes that “CPOs are emerging in industries that are delivering value through digital products.”

One definition of the role comes from an incumbent, Tom Willerer, CPO at Coursera, who was profiled by Sharon Florentine: “My job is to take my deep consumer understanding,” Willerer says, “and apply that to build a product to satisfy, delight, and be useful to people all around the world.” He notes that he is “constantly curating and executing a vision” of what product means to his company. CPOs strive for product engagement aimed at attaining business success.

Most CPOs report to the CEO. In an article about lessons learned as a CPO, Sylvester Kaczmarek observes that CPOs oversee all product-related matters from conception and development to innovation and eventual launch. “The CPO also ensures that the product would attract sales and ultimately generate profit for the business,” Kaczmarek says. CPOs develop product concept, strategy, design, development, and marketing and influence production, distribution, and procurement departments, he says.

Key Competencies for the CPO Role

A bachelor’s degree may be adequate for a job as CPO; Willerer suggests courses in project management, planning, business, management, design theory and design thinking, marketing, advertising, and sales, noting that management and soft skills are also vital for CPOs. Asked by the site IDG Connect to name three skills or abilities he looks for in prospective CPO candidates, Paul Trulove with SailPoint said, “the ability to communicate, technical and functional expertise in the job, and a track record of being able to process and tackle challenging situations.”

When preparing career communications to send to employers, those aspiring to the CPO role should emphasize these qualities:

  • Vision and ability to communicate that vision, as well as the ability to communicate across various functions, such as design, engineering, marketing, and user research
  • Hyper-focus on customer needs
  • Evangelistic marketing
  • Research and analysis
  • Tech-savvy and software-proficiency
  • Innovative problem solving
  • Product development
  • Trend-awareness
  • Design thinking

Level-Up Tips

Pointing out that the CEO of Instagram rose from a CPO-like role (VP of Product), writer Shane Schick predicted that “proving yourself as a CPO may soon become one of the quickest paths to the top.” A typical career path in the product realm looks like this, according to Dana Solomon at ProductPlan: Associate Product Manager to Product Manager to Senior Product Manager to Director of Product to VP of Product to Chief Product Officer, and beyond. Alternate paths are also possible, Duncan Malcolm points out, listing such roles as lead product manager/principal product manager, contract product manager, consultant product manager, and specialist product manager.

Here are a few suggestions for those seeking to break into the CPO role, expand their horizons in an existing CPO role, or even rise beyond the CPO role:

  • Determine if a company is product-centric or sales-driven. If you’re looking to make your mark in a top product position in a company new to you, you’ll be happier in a product-driven company. Companies that develop a product but fail to invest in it, instead investing resources in sales, are not product-centric, says Jeetu Patel, CPO of Box, in Bennett’s article.
  • Don’t be discouraged from the role if you lack a tech background. “It can be helpful to have a technical background, but it’s not entirely necessary.” That’s the observation of P.K. Agarwal, as quoted in Florentine’s article. “Agarwal says understanding that three departments – design, analytics/data, and engineering – must “coordinate efforts to design, develop and build a winning product and a successful CPO must be able to manage all those effectively” is more important than a tech background.
  • CPO is an excellent opportunity for women product leaders. The CPO position represents an excellent opportunity, points out Shelley Parry, operating partner at Insight, for women product leaders to step into the gap that has occurred because the emergent quality of project leadership has reduced the pool of available talent. “My advice to women is to take action and position yourselves to take advantage of an open and growing opportunity,” Parry advises. Mary Clark, Chief Product Officer and Chief Marketing Officer at Synchronoss, adds that aspiring female CPOs should “listen to their instincts and have confidence,” particularly with regard to conflict resolution. While opportunities are promising for women, not surprisingly female product managers earn less than their male counterparts.
  • Be hungry and curious. Box’s Patel says he looks for product leaders with hunger and curiosity. “Without enough of those characteristics, even the smartest or most technical person on the planet won’t do things the way they need to be done,” he says.

CPO Trends to Watch

  • Product teams are starting to report in greater numbers to a CPO, instead of to marketing. Jake Sorofman reports in The State of Product Leadership 2019 that in 2018, Chief Marketing Officers were the main role overseeing product management by a wide margin. That’s still the case, but the margin is shrinking, with an almost 7% increase in reporting to a chief product officer or equivalent in 2019.
  • Understanding of systems thinking increases. “As product managers, we can no longer just stay in our lanes or keep our heads down,” notes Rosemary King. “Our first order of business is to understand the ecosystems of our customers, organizations, and products, and how they all affect each other.” As director of training products for Mind the Product Training, King has noticed increased interest in systems-thinking training.
  • Customers guide decisions. Sorofman cited concern about a tendency in the recent past for product decisions to be informed “more often by competitors than by customers.” Happily, Sorofman says, the pendulum has now swung back to customers as guides.
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Outlook for the Chief Procurement Officer Role

What You Need to Know Right Now to Level Up as a CPO

The Chief Procurement Officer (CPO) role has broadened in the face of digitalization. The CPO role has morphed beyond a cost-cutting function to one that seeks new, strategic ways to create value – so much so that that some experts have suggested changing the title to Chief Value Officer or Chief Purpose Officer.

While the procurement industry lacks a common definition for the CPO, the Institute for Supply Management (ISM) defines the job this way: “The identification, acquisition, access, positioning and management of resources the organization needs or potentially needs in the attainment of its strategic objectives.” On the site Spend Matters (an excellent resource for CPOs, by the way), Pierre Mitchell and Michael Lamoureux characterize the CPO as the “highest ranking leader in the organization that has the accountability and authority to influence this supply (and the third-party spending disbursed to acquire that supply) across the organization.” The authors note that CPOs typically report to the COO, CFO, or CEO (16 percent report to the top officer). Only 9 percent of procurement organizations have a CPO who is part of the C-suite.

CPOs tend to have worked their way up from procurement or finance roles; an alternate route is via management consulting that focuses on procurement or processes. Some advance into top operational roles, such as CFO and COO, after serving as CPOs.

Key Competencies for the CPO Role

The minimum education requirement for the role of CPO is typically a bachelor’s degree, though a master’s degree in finance, supply-chain management, or procurement – or an MBA – will enhance a candidate’s marketability. Some CPOs have advanced degrees in technical areas, such as engineering. A number of certification programs also are available in the field. Organizations typically seek at least 15 years in management, with a significant portion of that involving managing purchasing and procurement departments. Developing relationships with suppliers while advancing toward CPO can be an advantage.

Leadership and communication skills are a given for CPOs. In your career-marketing communications, showcase the additional CPO competencies and characteristics on this list you possess:

  • Procurement-development and budgeting skills
  • Ability to identify cost-reduction opportunities
  • Ability to select and manage cutting-edge procurement systems
  • Strategic thinking and problem-solving
  • Analytical mind
  • Risk-management knowledge
  • Business skills, especially in finance and accounting as applied to budgeting, cost management, financial accounting, treasury, and risk management
  • Strong negotiating skills
  • Collaborative and team-building skills, especially with IT, finance, HR, and legal
  • Solid operational management and general business skills and savvy
  • Change-management skills
  • Knowledge of enterprise risk management and business continuity planning

Level-Up Tips

Here are a few suggestions for those seeking to break into the CPO role, expand their horizons in an existing CPO role, or even rise beyond the CPO role:

  • Be sure you fit the culture. The lack of cultural fit in which “the culture of the CPO does not fit with other senior managers, perhaps his or her immediate boss or maybe the wider stakeholder group,” is one of the top 3 reasons CPOs are fired, reports Peter Smith on Spend Matters (the other reasons are lack or results and deficient strategic alignment). Whether you’re climbing the ladder into a CPO role or moving from one CPO role to another, you can pre-empt lack of cultural fit through careful research and observation in the job-search stage. Learn as much as you can about an organization in which you are interested in serving as CPO. Consider informational interviews before you even apply for a job. Talk to members of your network who work for the organization to get a feel for the culture and whether you fit. Ask questions in job interviews, and ask if you can talk with members of the team you’d be working with.
  • Make an impact in your first hundred days. KPMG lays out a detailed plan for success in a CPO’s first hundred days on the job, suggesting that a new CPO focus on three key aspects:
    • understanding the culture and environment (see above point about culture), the role, and the stakeholders;
    • managing communication, business expectations, and change;
    • developing a compelling vision and plan.
  • Sharpen your skills and expertise in risk management. Deloitte’s Global CPO survey 2018 lists risk management as one of three top priorities for CPOs (new products/market development and reducing costs are the others). Indeed, companies are scrutinizing the supplier stability, considering the survival of specific suppliers, as well as the possible effect of natural disasters and geopolitical events.
  • Become a master of procurement technology. The Deloitte report notes a relatively low use level of technologies such as predictive analytics and collaboration networks, with just a third of procurement leaders deploying these digital approaches. Given technology’s role in transforming the CPO’s ability to lower costs and aid collaboration with suppliers, CPOs and prospective CPOs ready to use these technologies will stand out. Indeed, blogger Alexia Antuzzi affirms, “in the coming years, we’ll see the further evolution in next-generation digital procurement. It’s imperative that CPOs start (or continue the pursuit of) their digital procurement journey now to ensure they’re not left behind in the race for competitive advantage.”

CPO Trends to Watch

  • The CPO becomes more of a strategic partner. So says Antuzzi, noting that “the role of cost-killer is rapidly giving way to critical business partner.” CPOs are now expected to deliver value across the entire organization.
  • Strong supplier relationships gain in importance. CPOs are using technology to better understand supplier processes, reports, Killian McCarthy, sales director for SoftCo. McCarthy recommends creating a supplier strategy and deploying technology for supplier onboarding, managing data, creating an intuitive supplier catalog, tracking, purchase orders and invoices, and communicating with suppliers. Procurement teams, advises blogger Malvi Goyal, should involve suppliers in strategic decisions from the initial planning phase on.
  • Digital transformation slowly makes its way into the procurement world. Like all aspects of business, procurement is affected and enhanced by digital transformation. Vollmer, however, identifies roadblocks to this transformation – in the form of budget restrictions, talent shortages, and more. Most CPOs believe these technologies will improve procurement performance but must find the resources to implement them in procurement operations.
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Outlook for the Chief Creative Officer Role

What You Need to Know Right Now to Level Up

The watchword for the Chief Creative Officer role is “change.” Headlines of articles about the role often refer to “evolution,” a “murky future,” and a function redefined by digital transformation. Some practitioners note the role has become more collaborative and that it veers more toward the marketing function than in the past.

The title of Chief Creative Officer (CCO) is frequently applied in large advertising and other creative agencies, but it also applies to an executive role in companies such as GE, Target, Best Buy, General Mills, Microsoft, and Chobani. The role evolved as creative content went online and became more pervasive and important, motivating large brands to bring the creative function in house. In essence, Chief Creative Officers oversee an organization’s creative output, which may include marketing, media, and branding.

Because the Chief Creative Officer’s purview often includes responsibility for the overall look and feel of creative content, the role can overlap that of Chief Marketing Officer, Chief Communication Officer, or Chief Branding Officer. Forbes journalist Jason Compton calls the role, “leadership at the intersection of ideas and commerce,” suggesting that blending creativity and commerce can be dicey.

Gain insight into the Chief Creative Director role by reading this Lifehacker “How I Work” feature about Squarespace Chief Creative Officer David Lee and his shortcuts, workspaces, and routines, and an interview with Anjelika Temple, Chief Creative Officer at Brit+Co, who discusses such topics as the skills top creative leaders need to succeed and Temple’s biggest creative challenge to date.

Key Competencies for the CCO Role

Writing on the AllBusiness site, writes Courtney Feider suggests the CCO leads change management, “setting up strategic and thoughtful creative disruption, and implementing it with a process.”

In your career-marketing communications, showcase these additional Chief Creative Officer competencies you possess:

  • Creativity, innovativeness, and the ability to imbue an organization-wide culture of creativity
  • Abroad background combined with the ability to manage a team of specialists
  • Collaborative across silos
  • Ability to inspire new business strategy
  • Solid grasp of analytics
  • Quick adaptability
  • Leadership skills, including the ability to lead change management.
  • Drive to cultivate creativity throughout the organization

See also Top 50 Chief Creative Officer Skills.

Level-Up Tips

Here are a few suggestions for those seeking to break into the Chief Creative Officer role, expand their horizons in an existing CCO role, or even rise beyond the Chief Creative Officer role:

  • Don’t sweat educational requirements. The role of Chief Creative Director tends to have lighter educational requirements than other top-executive roles. While some CCOs hold a Master of Fine Arts degree, others in the role have only an associate’s degree. If you are interested in the CCO role, you may be heartened to know that people in this role come from diverse backgrounds, and no single list of hard-and-fast qualifications exists. You may be able to break in based on reputation, stellar past accomplishments, and your ability to show how your creativity will enable you to deliver results to your next employer.
  • Be sure the total organization is behind you. That advice comes from Jay Haines, founder of a creative recruiting firm, as quoted by blogger Adrianne Pasquarelli. Haines also suggested “CCOs need the support of management and a sponsor in the executive office to truly succeed.”
  • Know how to blend strategic business objectives, marketplace attraction, staff engagement, and company innovation to create results. “Using branding know-how and the history of what resonates with customers,” writes Feider,“ a CCO can uncover detailed audience segmentation by individual marketplace connection and help match up the differentiators, artistry, and assets of the product to the audience’s need.” Feider asserts that the Chief Creative Officer role comprises leadership advising, strategizing, and igniting creative thought, suggesting that organizations not using their CCOs in this way are missing out.
  • Use the role to generate creativity throughout the organization. Fieder cites Robert Epstein, a senior research psychologist at the American Institute for Behavioral Research and Technology, whose client received 55 percent more new ideas after Epstein trained the staff in core creative competencies. That level of innovation is bound to impress the C-Suite.
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Outlook for the Chief Operations Officer Role

What You Need to Know Right Now to Level Up as a COO

Google search results for “COO trends” include the 2011 Harvard Business Review article, “The Rise of the COO,” immediately followed by the Forbes 2015 article, “The Decline of the COO.” Which is it? This article explores the state of the Chief Operations Officer (COO) role, as well as providing suggestions for those aspiring to the role.

SAP COO Dave Spencer on CIO.com refutes any decline, noting the COO role has “never been more important.” Spencer asserts, “the function of COO has evolved to become not just about resources and efficiencies, but about people, collaboration, and empowerment.”

The COO is often seen as something of a partner to the CEO; in fact, some experts suggest the individuals holding these two roles should have personalities that complement each other so the COO is a “counterbalance” to the CEO. Because of this tight partnership, the question arises whether the COO outranks other C-suite officers. Generally, all officers report to the CEO, even as the COO is considered second in command. COOs may also have additional functions, such as marketing, attached to their roles.

Research by Nathan Bennett and Stephen A. Miles in Harvard Business Review reveals seven types of roles for COOs in relation to CEOs: Executor of the management team’s strategies; change agent who facilitates organizational transformation; mentor, perhaps guiding a less experienced CEO; “the other half,” who complements and balances the CEO; a partner working as half of a pair with the CEO; heir apparent expected to eventually take over for the CEO; and MVP, a superstar placed in the COO role to keep him or her from being lured by other organizations. (Hint: Becoming a superstar in your organization will increase your chances of becoming COO).

While Facebook’s Sheryl Sandberg is one of the world’s most famous COOs, the role appears not particularly welcoming to women, though exact statistics are hard to come by.

COOs oversee day-to-day operations of key departments, develop procedures and processes to keep those operations running smoothly, and update the CEO with key operational information. The incumbent may also oversee the human-resources function.

Key Competencies for the COO Role

The role of COO is possible with just a bachelor’s degree, though a master’s degree, especially an MBA, will add to the individual’s marketability. Those without an MBA may want to consider an online short course offering an operations-management certification. Organizations typically seek at least 15 years in management, with a significant portion of that also involving staffing or HR.

More than for other C-Suite roles, experts suggest humility and lack of ego for COOs. The reasons are unclear, but they may relate to the idea of counterbalancing the CEO, given that CEOs don’t usually have humble reputations.

Leadership skills are a given for COOs. In your career-marketing communications, showcase the additional COO competencies and characteristics on this list you possess:

  • Cross-departmental knowledge
  • International experience
  • Flexibility
  • Thinking that is both strategic and detailed
  • Courageous and data-driven decision-making
  • Sociability, an appreciation for talent, and a passion for performance
  • Acumen in both business and financial management
  • Excellent written, oral, and client-facing communication skills 

Level-Up Tips

Here are a few suggestions for those seeking to break into the COO role, expand their horizons in an existing COO role, or even rise beyond the COO role:

  • Get to the meat of the job. Alexander Tuff, COO and head of strategy at Winged Keel Group describes his cluelessness of the job upon being appointed as COO in charge of 600 people at CIT Group, even after 15 years of “skill accumulation.” Three COO roles later, Tuff identified key functions of a good COO:
    • Fill leadership gaps
    • Fix big issues
    • Execute core strategy in concert with senior leadership.

“Most importantly,” Tuff advises, “a COO needs to be an effective communicator and collaborator with whom people want to work.”

  • Take advantage of situations in which an effective COO is critical to an organization’s governance. While Gary L. Neilson wrote in 2015 of the decline of the COO role, he cited situations would-be COOs might be able to capitalize on:
    • When companies want to show they have a handle on succession planning by appointing a COO as heir-apparent to the CEO.
    • When the CEO needs to place an unusually strong emphasis on strategic concerns.
    • As previously mentioned, when a counterbalance of skills and personalities between COO and CEO is called for. Spencer notes that CEOs are increasingly expected to be the public faces of their organizations. That means COOs must step into representing the company to employees.

If you seek an internal promotion to COO, keep your eyes and ears open to tap into these potential situations. If you seek a COO role from outside, rely on research and your network to keep you informed of compatible opportunities.

  • People come first. People may not immediately come to mind when we think of “operations,” but the COO role, says Spencer, needs to go beyond “resources and efficiencies” and instead should focus on “people, collaboration, and empowerment.” Spencer adds that “trust has become the driving metric for the modern COO.”
  • Consider one or more interim COO positions. Desmond Pieri has built an entire career as an interim CEO and COO, completing 25 such roles since 2000. As he points out in his blog [https://changeagentdes.com/] about his experiences, “most startup CEOs in high-growth mode would love having a COO, but they don’t want the long-term addition to payroll.” The typical reason Pieri is hired as an interim COO, he says, is “when a CEO wants more bandwidth for a period of time, often during a period of rapid growth.”
  • Know that the COO role provides a solid path to CEO. As of 2015, Forbes reported, 44 percent of current CEOs were COOs before climbing to the top of the ladder. 

COO Trends to Watch

  • Greater responsibility at greater speed. The plates of COOs grow ever fuller, and the expected speed with which initiatives need to be implemented is increasing. In the banking industry, for example, more than 90 percent of COOs in a study believed initiatives and projects under their purview had increased during the past 3 years, with 75 percent also citing an increase in expected implementation speed in the same period (from “COO Agenda 2020—Trends and Need for Action in Banking from A COO Perspective,” by Ehlerding, Herkert, Willbold-Majling, Müller, and Neuberger.)
  • COO as driver of digitalization of business processes. More work at greater speed requires end-to-end process optimization. Ehlerding et al suggest the COO therefore needs to act as driver of digitalization of business processes.
  • Growth of companies in both size and complexity raises operational challenges. Strong COOs are needed to connect the dots among technology, finance, and leadership needs.
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Outlook for the Chief Communications Officer Role

What You Need to Know Right Now to Level Up as a CCO

Chief Communications Officer (CCO), a relative newcomer to the C-Suite, is often characterized as a more contemporary name for Public Relations Officer. But since, arguably, corporate communications has changed more since the turn of this century than just about any other organizational function, the CCO role is viewed as increasingly strategic and important while encompassing much more than public relations.

Social media leads the list of changes affecting corporate communication, with CCOs, as Patrick Hanley describes, “aggressively and proactively manag[ing] their brand narrative in a digital ecosystem where organizations lack control of how they’re talked about online.” Forbes Communications Council member Lou Casale adds that in the current climate, “any public comment can be misinterpreted or misrepresented, causing damage to a business’s reputation and brand.”

Other changes include globalization, a 24/7 news cycle that cries out for immediacy, increasing importance of corporate social responsibility, the growth of branding and reputation management, a mandate for proactive and immediate crisis communication, and the need for a consistent, cohesive message and communication strategy. Hanley notes that CCOs are “guardians of company culture, values, and beliefs,” organizational elements often most effectively conveyed through stories. “The CCO helps the organization connect the dots of vision, purpose, values, beliefs and strategy to express the company’s character in a story that will resonate with its customers,” Casale writes. Some organizations even have Chief Storytelling Officers.

Just over a third of CCOs report to the CEO, with the rest reporting to other C-Suite officers, including 12 percent who report to Chief Marketing Officers. CCOs are often corporate-communication directors/VPs or public-relations directors/VPs before stepping into the CCO role.

Key Competencies for the CCO Role

In seeking a CCO, organizations look for individuals with 10 years of experience in a given sector. In 2017, McKinsey studied job postings for CCOs, identifying these as the most mentioned competencies for the role: Team orientation, collaborative approach, negotiation skills, mentoring abilities, versatility, credibility, and relationship-building skills. A bachelor’s degree is often a sufficient foundation for this role, though some employers prefer a master’s degree (about a quarter of CCOs hold a master’s degree).

Role-specific competencies are also needed for CCOs. In your career-marketing communications, showcase the additional CCO competencies and characteristics on this list you possess:

  • Communications skill, including solid writing
  • Ability to spot trends early
  • Talent-management skills
  • Stakeholder management
  • Team leadership
  • Strategic thinking
  • Media and social-media knowledge
  • Capabilities in research and metrics
  • Public-relations and storytelling skills
  • Crisis-communication skills
  • Courage to step up “to address difficult issues, saying what needs to be said” (identified by almost half – 49 percent – of CCOs from Fortune 500 companies surveyed by Korn Ferry).

 Level-Up Tips

Here are a few suggestions for those seeking to break into the CCO role, expand their horizons in an existing CCO role, or even rise beyond the CCO role:

  • Be able to answer the “what” and “how” questions. A report from the Arthur W. Page Society examining the CCO role suggests that CCOs should be able to describe “What value do we create?” and “How do we create it?”
  • Look for organizations that lack a consistent message and don’t already have a CCO. Is the user experience of visiting a given organization’s website consistent with talking to customer service, visiting the company’s retail or physical space, and following the organization on social media? Carving a niche for yourself based on an employer’s shortcomings is a delicate proposition, but the lack of a consistent message and experience can point to the need to create a CCO role. Carefully proposing such a role to an organization without being overly critical can be an effective path to the CCO position.
  • Aspire to be an elite corporate-affairs executive. A Korn-Ferry study of CCOs identifies “a small and distinctive subset of corporate communications of best-in-class corporate affairs officers [who] shoulder a broadening scope of responsibilities and an increasing mandate to act as high-level strategic advisors to CEOs, and they frequently serve as members of the senior leadership team.” The key to this elite status appears to be broad mastery of corporate communications, government relations, community relations, employee relations, marketing, brand/reputation, investor relations, and more.
  • Become an integrator. The Korn-Ferry CCO report cites a mandate for “greater integration of communications with other functions, particularly around creating and executing strategy.” Indeed, “CCOs are working more closely than ever with their C-Suite contemporaries,” reports “The New COO” from the Arthur W. Page Society, “co-leading on issues like diversity and corporate culture with the Chief Human Resources Officer (CHRO), marketing and sales promotion with the Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) and building digital systems in partnership with the Chief Information Officer (CIO).” The ability to drive cross-functional collaboration and integration around strategic priorities is seen as key. The best way to be an integrator is to nurture partnerships with C-Suite colleagues.

 CCO Trends to Watch

  • Mandate for creativity. “In 2019 and beyond, it is a must for CCOs to foster a continuous flow of creativity,” writes Gregg Apirian and Chuck Gose of the communications platform Social Chorus. “This starts with building a diverse team made up of data-driven specialists and ‘creatives’ such as visual designers, copywriters, video producers, graphic illustrators, and web/mobile engineers,” they assert. This creativity, the authors note, is critical to engaging and activating employees. CCOs should “build a connection through culture, communication, and technology,” Apirian and Gose advise.
  • From employee engagement to employees as communicators. The Gartner 2019 Agenda Poll identifies driving employee engagement as a top priority in corporate communications. The goal is “enabling employees to understand how strategic goals relate to their own work is the most important driver of employee performance,” says Gartner’s Jordan Bryan. At the same time, Staffbase observes that “all employees are becoming communicators.” As employees communicate more publicly about their employers and roles via social media, their understanding of this alignment between strategy and their own work becomes even more critical. This alignment can help generate what a study by grad students at Singapore’s Nanyang Technological University calls “a shift from employee engagement to employee activism where employees are empowered and can truly connect with a company’s purpose.”
  • Authenticity addresses many corporate-communication challenges. Authenticity generates trust, and as Matt Abrahams, writing for the company Quantified Communications, writes, “that trust builds up the leader’s credibility and breeds confidence in her capability and intentions, which motivates greater engagement and effort from her audience members, peers, and subordinates.” Abrahams defines authenticity as “the audience’s perception that a speaker’s words match his or her beliefs and actions” and notes that authentic leaders are audience-centric, open, warm, and present with their audiences. Storytelling is an effective technique for conveying authenticity.
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